FACTORS INFLUENCING INDIAN CLIMATEApril 1, 2010
The major factors affecting India’s climate are:
Latitude The Tropic of Cancer (231hoN) passes through the middle part of the country. The Great Plains also lie within 32°N latitude. It keeps the temperature of the region substantially high.
The Monsoon Winds The monsoon winds which blow from south-west during summer and from the north-easterly direction during winter influence Indian climate, by affecting rainfall, humidity and temperature. Onset and intensity of monsoon depends upon: (i) Thermal contrast; (ii) Inter-tropical Convergence (ITC)-ITC shifts northward and it results in the formation of Equatorial Westerlies which blow towards ITC; (iii) Upper air currents or jet-streams.
Relief Relief features, particularly the Himalayas, the Western Ghats and the Purvanchal Hills, influence the climate by affecting temperature and rainfall. The Himalayas check the cold and dry polar air coming from Antarctica region and direct the summer monsoons towards northwest.